Governing protected areas, like national parks, often entails dealing with competing claims. A wide variety of stakeholders, including park managers, governments, NGO’s, land owners and entrepreneurs is involved. Each of them with different and and often conflicting interest and ambitions. Drawing upon studies made in the past years on the Veluwe (The Netherlands) and the Danube Delta (Romania, Ukraine) and including experiences for elsewhere different governance arrangements that are used to deal with the multiple use of land were elobared. Particular attention was given to the way in which specific patterns of path -and interdependencies shape both the present situation and the reform options within a particular situation. The aim of the presentation was to show that succesfull governance arrangements depend on the specific context (cultural, political, economic, legal) of the area, to show how Evolutionary Governance Theory can help to get an sustained understanding of this context and that arrangements will only work temporarily and need to be adapted sooner a later. The later requiring a constant state of vigilance, flexibility and possibilities for (self) reflection.
Presentation given for the University of Malaya Spatial-Environmental Governance for Sustainability Discourse Series on March 26 in Kuala Lumpur.