Place branding strategies are increasingly used to promote cities, regions and national parks. In this paper we analyse the evolution of landscape governance in three Flemish regions to discern the virtues of these place branding strategies in relation to other forms of environmental policy and spatial planning. In all three regions state led policies and comprehensive planning efforts were gradually complemented and replaced by more participatory planning approaches and place branding strategies that use the landscape as a frame for coordinating land use activities and development. The study shows that place branding strategies can be a useful addition to other policy instruments and strategies. A focus on place identity and value creation can help in reconciling the various environmental, social, and economic interests. The study also shows that policies, plans and place brands that are developed outside a political context that is experienced as legitimate and inclusive by the different stakeholders are more difficult to implement and might in the long run undermine landscape governance.
collaborative planning community Danube Delta democracy discourse dorpsvisie EGT empowerment entrepreneurs Evolutionary Governance Theory Foucault governance habitats directive identiteit innovation knowledge krimp landschap land use leefbaarheid locals nationale parken Natura 2000 Natural resource management nature conservation natuur participatie participation place branding place identity planning Planning Theory power public administration recreatie reflexivity regional development resilience ruimtelijke ordening smart growth sociale cohesie spatial planning trust urban planning